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Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Desert Survival Gear & Essential Items

Desert Survival Gear and Garb- How to dress for the heat

Hats
Let’s go top to bottom and start with headwear. A wide-brimmed hat is an essential item for desert travelers unless you want your face to turn into a piece of driftwood. There’s a bevy of types from cowboy to Indiana Jones style explorer hats.

I have bounced back and forth over the years between using Tilley, Filson, and Stetson brimmed hats. The Tilley hat is ideal for triple-digit weather during the hotter months of the year as it is a lighter fabric. During the cooler months, I will opt for the oilskin Filson or a wool, crushable Stetson cowboy hat. The latter two will cook my head in the summer though and I value my hair.

Eye Protection
Many cowboys go without them but if I can reduce the chances of getting cataracts later in life, I will start by wearing sunglasses while afield. Goggles are excellent as well and come in handy when the wind kicks up and can help prevent a corneal abrasion (not fun!) when there’s flying grit (different than True Grit).

Sunscreen
Enough said! Especially critical as you climb up in elevation. SPF 15 or higher. The Bullfrog brand is superior for waterborne activities like we see up at Lake Powell and Lake Mead.

Bandanna or Shemagh
A shemagh is a garment many of our troops and indigenous cultures use in Africa and the Middle East for wrapping around their head and necks. They are usually made of cotton and are larger than a bandanna at about 43”x43”.

This is one of my most treasured pieces of desert garb and I’ve used it not only as a scarf but water strainer, sling, dustmask during sandstorms, potholder around the campfire, pillow, and much more. Mostly, it keeps the sun off my neck but can be soaked in water and draped over my hat to keep me cool while hiking.

I also have a large silk bandanna that I was given by some ranching friends and you’d be hard-pressed to find a cowboy without his protective, multi-purpose neckerchief. The latter can be purchased through western wear stores. Get it in large.

Cotton bandannas which sell for a few dollars come in a variety of colors and some with topo maps and star charts printed on them. I usually have one lining the inside brim of my hat which acts as a sweatband and also bulks up my hat’s inside if it’s too loose (like after a haircut or days without enough serious thinking!).

Outer Shirt
Long-sleeve, lightweight cotton/poly or cotton/nylon material. These are quick-dry fabrics and don’t have the hypothermia-inducing qualities associated with wearing 100% cotton in the outdoors. Columbia, Royal Robbin, and Patagonia are good brands to consider.

Inner Shirt
For cooler weather, a wicking layer is essential to prevent your core from becoming chilled from sweat. Coolmax, Underarmor, silk, polypro and wool are all outstanding fabrics that will transfer your perspiration away from your body.

Gloves
Your hands are essential survival tools and you don’t want to shred them on cactus spines or mesquite thorns while gathering firewood or building a shelter. Pick up some work gloves at the hardware store or leather tactical gloves for something more durable.

Pants
I like the 5.11 brand desert pants as these are a ripstop cotton/poly material and have held up well on punishing fieldcourses over the years. Filson also makes Safari-style desert pants that are extremely lightweight although these start at about $110.

The beauty of the 5.11 and BDU pants are all the cargo pockets for stowing my survival gear like firestarters, signal mirror, snacks, and pocketknife. Avoid, at all costs, jeans and 100% cotton materials.
A decent hat, shemagh scarf, sunglasses, poly-cotton shirt, 5.11 pants, and leather boots for desert trekking.
Belt
A 2” leather belt is my preferred for carrying a firearm. Cabelas and Galco has affordable quality leather belts.

Underwear
As with the inner-shirt, wear a wicking layer as damp cotton can be harsh on the skin long term. Boxers are much better than briefs which can chafe the groin region.

Socks
There’s a plethora of fabrics for socks nowadays- try Smartwool, Thorlos, or Smart-Wool. Avoid cotton athletic or tube socks unless you want more blisters than usual.

Footwear
Again, there’s a lot to choose from but here are a few pointers: avoid black; get ankle high or higher boots as this will help to keep spines and stickers from attaching to your socks and making life miserable; and get some decent insoles which your feet will appreciate after a long day of hiking.

My preferred brand is SWAT Original. One pair tends to last for about 8 months of abuse and a few hundred miles of hiking. Danner also makes excellent desert boots. On the low-end but still reliable are the Hi-Tec brands.

On overnight or multi-week trips, I will also pack along some Gold Bond powder for applying to my feet and boots at the start and finish of each day.

Other items

Eye drops
On overnight or longer trips, it’s nice to have some eye-drops along to wash out the grit and dust from your eyes after a day of being in the wind. Systane eye-drops or other saline based solutions are good.

Electrolyte replacement powder
Water and electrolyte replacement powders are both critical to your body’s thermoregulation ability. Hyponatremia, which happens when too much water is consumed and electrolytes are diluted in the bloodstream, can be life-threatening. GU20, Hydralyte, and Clifshots are just a few of the electrolyte replacement items available. These replace lost sodium and potassium and are essential during the hotter months of the year when your water consumption rates increase dramatically.

Water
Really, in the desert- you’re kidding! Yeah, that’s right, carry 2-6 quarts in the pack and 10-30 gallons in the truck depending on the time of year and number of people. Even it is was a wet year, even if it rained that day, even if my buddy told me he came upon water in the same canyon that week, I will still bring plenty of it with me as there’s a reason it’s called a DESERT and you don’t want to turn into jerky!

And if, for some reason, you do run out of water, then stay put from 10 am to 5 pm and hike during the cooler hours of the evening or morning. People have lasted up to two days without water in triple-digit heat of the Grand Canyon and Death Valley while others, trying to find water in the middle of the day, have perished within 3 hours for heat-stroke. Hole up in the shade like a coyote and remaining clothed to cut down on sweat loss.

Binoculars
An old desert-rat who had spent most of five decades prospecting in the arid Southwest once told me that his binoculars saved him more sweat than anything else in his pack. If you can get to a vantage point and scan the topography below for water, you can locate water sources more readily and reduce the risk of trekking to what looks like a “suspected” waterhole. I carry a pair of 8x24 binoculars for just this purpose and they have served me well.

Aquarium Tubing
A 3’ section of aquarium tubing will enable you to extract water from tiny rock fissures, hollow tree cavities, and sandstone seeps where your water bottle can’t fit. A Ziploc baggy is also handy to have along these lines and I carry several gallon-sized spares in my first-aid kit.

Down Jacket
For nine months out of the year, I carry a down jacket in my daypack and scrunches down to the size of a grapefruit. Remember the desert is a land of extremes where it can be 110 degrees during the day and then plummet to 30 degrees at night! A down jacket is low-cost life-insurance against hypothermia if you get stuck out at night.

In conclusion, dress properly, pre-hydrate prior to your trip, cut out caffeinated beverages, take frequent breaks to prevent heat gain, and suck down those electrolyte drinks every 30-60 minutes in the intense heat. Remember that shade-hunger is a good thing.

Enjoy the Wilds!

Tony Nester

Ancient Pathways Survival School, LLC
http://www.apathways.com/

About Ancient Pathways

Tony Nester is the author of numerous books and DVDs on survival. His school Ancient Pathways is the primary provider of survival training for the Military Special Operations community and he has served as a consultant for the NTSB, Travel Channel, Backpacker Magazine, and the film Into the Wild. When not on the trail, he lives in a passive-solar, strawbale home in northern Arizona. For information on Tony’s books, gear, or bushcraft courses, visit www.apathways.com.
 

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